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The Relationship among Re-Entry Shock, Coping Modes, and Psychological Re-Adjustment of Adult Latvian Return Migrants

Iveta Ozola-Cirule, Baiba Martinsone
University of Latvia, Latvia, Department of Psychology

Abstract. Research has shown that it is more difficult to emotionally adjust to change when returning home compared to going abroad. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among re-entry shock, modes of coping, and the indicators of psychological re-adjustment in a group of return migrants – Latvian nationals returning home. Coping modes and demographic indicators predicting re-entry shock were also addressed and the indicators of psychological re-adjustment (depression, anxiety, and stress). The group being studied consisted of 84 adults aged from 20 to 69 years (M = 39.59; SD = 10.37) who took part in an anonymous online survey. Re-entry shock was measured using the 16-item Re-entry shock scale (RSS; Seiter & Waddell, 1989). The coping modes regarding re-entry shock were determined using Re-entry Coping Modes (Adler, 1981), and psychological re-adjustment was measured using a shortened version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999, adapted by Vanags & Raščevska in 2015).
Return migrants who reported higher re-entry shock also showed higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. More difficulties with readjusting after returning to Latvia were reported by younger people, females, those who had lived abroad for a lengthy period, those who had recently returned, and those who had chosen ineffective coping strategies. It was concluded that important predictors for re-entry shock are age, the length of time spent abroad, and coping modes. In turn, important psychological re-adjustment predictors are gender and coping modes.

Keywords: return migrant, re-entry shock, re-entry coping modes, psychological re-adjustment

In: Human, Technologies and Quality of Education, 2023. Proceedings of Scientific Papers = Cilvēks, tehnoloģijas un izglītības kvalitāte, 2023. Rakstu krājums
Riga, University of Latvia, 2023. 796 p. Ed. L. Daniela
ISBN 978-9934-36-116-6